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Crossover Youth

Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Crossover Youth

This study documents the rates at which children involved with foster care enter the juvenile justice system (crossover or dually involved), and the factors associated with this risk.

The sample was a birth cohort of youth born in 1994 and 1995 who had at least one foster care spell prior to juvenile justice involvement. The sample was linked to juvenile justice data to determine the crossover rate, as well as risk factors for crossover. These analyses were standardized across three cities to validate patterns across sites.


NYC had a crossover rate of 11.1%, compared to 6.6% in Cook County and 24.3% in Cuyahoga County. Older age at first foster care placement had progressively greater risk of crossover. Risk was also significantly increased for children who were male, black, were placed in residential care, and who had a greater number of foster care spells (i.e., distinct episodes in foster care).


Funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
In collaboration with Case Western University, Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago
NYC Administration for Children's Services
NYC Department of Probation

Documents and Links

From foster care to juvenile justice: Exploring characteristics of youth in three cities
Cutuli, J. J., Goerge, R. M., Coulton, C., Schretzman, M., Crampton, D., Charvat, B. J., Lalich, N., Raithel, J., Gacitua, C. & Lee, E. L. (2016). Children and Youth Services Review, 67, 84-94.