Archives of Rudolph W. Giuliani, 107th Mayor

Open Admissions and Remedial Education
at the City University of New York

Sally Renfro and Allison Armour-Garb

Prepared for the Mayor's Advisory Task
Force on the City University of New York

June 1999

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. BACKGROUND

A. THE EXECUTIVE ORDER AND THE RESEARCH QUESTION
B. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS

II. INTRODUCTION

III. THE HISTORY OF OPEN ADMISSIONS AND REMEDIAL EDUCATION AT THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK

A. HISTORY OF OPEN ADMISSIONS AND REMEDIAL EDUCATION IN THE U.S.
B. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY AND ADMISSIONS POLICIES AT CUNY (1847-1968)
C. THE BIRTH OF OPEN ADMISSIONS AT CUNY (1965-1970)

1. INFLUENCE OF FEDERAL AND STATE AID POLICIES
2. POLICY BY RIOT

D. CUNY'S SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF SEGREGATION (1969-1973)
E. THE EARLY YEARS OF OPEN ADMISSIONS: CUNY AND THE BOE (1970-1974)
F. CUNY FACES A TURNING POINT (1975-1976)
G. THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF REMEDIATION (1976-1990)

1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CUNY'S ORIGINAL TRANSFER POLICIES (1967-1973)
2. DECLINING PUBLIC SCHOOLS, DECLINING CUNY ENROLLMENT (1970S)
3. NEW ACADEMIC POLICIES (1976-1990)

H. THE GAP BETWEEN POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION (1993-1999)
I. STANDARDS REVISITED (1992-1999)

1. COLLEGE PREPARATION AND THE SEAMLESS TRANSITION
2. ADMISSIONS STANDARDS AND LIMITS ON REMEDIATION
3. TESTING POLICY
4. GRADUATION STANDARDS
5. CONCLUSIONS

J. EPILOGUE

IV. INCOMING FRESHMEN AND THE ADMISSIONS PROCESS

A. VITAL STATISTICS

1. SCALE OF REMEDIATION
2. DEPTH OF REMEDIAL NEED
3. SAT SCORES
4. DIVERSITY
5. HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION
6. CONCLUSIONS

B. REGULAR ADMISSIONS

1. COLLEGE ADVISING
2. PERSONALIZED APPLICATION
3. ADMISSIONS STANDARDS
4. CONCLUSIONS

C. ADMISSION TO SPECIAL PROGRAMS

V. CUNY'S CURRENT APPROACH TO REMEDIAL EDUCATION

A. CONFIGURATION

1. THE NOMENCLATURE OF REMEDIATION AT CUNY
2. FINANCIAL AID
3. THE BASIC CONFIGURATION OF REMEDIATION AT CUNY
4. ALTERNATIVE CONFIGURATIONS: USIP, CLIP, AND CONTINUING EDUCATION

a) University Skills Immersion Program
b) CUNY Language Immersion Program
c) Continuing Education

5. CONCLUSIONS

B. ASSESSMENT

1. THE FRESHMAN SKILLS ASSESSMENT TESTS

a) The Reading Assessment Test
b) The Mathematics Assessment Test
c) The Writing Assessment Test

2. THE TASK FORCE'S ANALYSIS OF CUNY'S ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

a) Placement and pre-testing

(1) Validity and fairness of passing scores
(2) Reliability, validity, and fairness of the WAT
(3) Diagnostic-prescriptive capacity of the FSATs

b) Progress testing, post-testing, exit from remediation, and certification
c) ESL Testing

(1) CUNY's ESL assessment system
(2) The WAT and the academic progress of ESL students

3. THE TASK FORCE'S ANALYSIS OF OFF-THE-SHELF WRITING ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS
4. CONCLUSIONS

C. REMEDIAL CURRICULA AND INSTRUCTION

1. THE GOALS OF REMEDIATION AT CUNY
2. REMEDIAL CURRICULA AND INSTRUCTION

a) Quality and accountability
b) Meeting individual students' needs

3. CUNY'S REMEDIAL WRITING PROGRAM
4. CONCLUSIONS

VI. CONCLUSIONS

VII. SOURCES

VIII. KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS

APPENDIX A: CUNY Non-Comprehensive Senior, Comprehensive Senior, and Community Colleges

APPENDIX B: Partial List of CUNY and New York City Board of Education Administrators and Faculty Interviewed by Task Force Staff

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