The New York City Police Department January 20, 2011
released a report, Active Shooter: Recommendations and Analysis for Risk
Mitigation, to assist the New York City building security community in
preventing and responding to active shooter attacks. The study includes a
comprehensive compendium of 281 active shooter attacks that occurred between
1966 and 2010.
The NYPD performed a rigorous statistical analysis of
these cases to identify trends and patterns that would inform actionable
recommendations for the building security community.
"Active shooter incidents are some of the most dynamic
acts of violence that police and private security encounter. They are
particularly important for NYPD Shield members to understand," Police
Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly said. "After the Virginia Tech shooting and Mumbai
terrorist attacks, the Police Department undertook a statistical analysis of
active shooter incidents from 1966 to 2011. Its results are compiled in this
The Active Shooter report presents tactically useful
recommendations covering procedures, systems, and training for building security
personnel which include:
Installation of closed-circuit television systems
that provide domain awareness of the entire facility and its perimeter; ensure
that video feeds are viewable from a central command station.
Designation of shelter locations with thick walls,
solid doors with locks, minimal interior windows, first-aid emergency kits,
communication devices, and duress alarms.
Designation of a point-of-contact with knowledge of
the facility's security procedures and floor plan to liaise with police and
other emergency agencies in the event of an attack.
Identification of multiple evacuation routes and
practice evacuations under varying conditions; post evacuation routes in
conspicuous locations throughout the facility; ensure that evacuation routes
account for individuals with special needs and disabilities.
Active training for occupants of the building on how to
react to an incident.
Its analysis found that:
96% of active shooters are male;
98% of active shooter incidents are carried out by a
the median number of deaths associated with active
shooter attacks is two, as is the median number of wounded;
36% of active shooter attacks involve more than one
46% of active shooter attacks end with force applied
by police, private security, or other bystanders, and 40% of active shooter
attacks end with attacker suicide or attempted suicide; and
41% of active shooters had a professional
relationship with their closest victim, however, less than one-third of these
cases were perpetrated by individuals who were no longer employed by the
organization at the time of their attack, implying that the threat of active
shooters is not limited to downsized employees.
The report was unveiled at a SHIELD Conference in the
NYPD's auditorium in front of 400 members of the private building security
community. The conference included presentations on patterns and trends in
active shooter attacks; the NYPD's recommendations on how to mitigate the risk
from active shooter attacks; the Emergency Service Unit's response to active
shooter incidents; and warning signs of potential active shooters.
The NYPD Counterterrorism Bureau was established by
Commissioner Kelly in 2002 to guard against the threat of international and
domestic terrorism in New York City.
The full Active Shooter report can be found online via