New York City Police Department

Engineering Security | Protective Design for High Risk Buildings

ENDNOTES

Introduction

1. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Reference Manual to MitigatePotential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings, Risk Management Series, no. 426 (Washington, D.C.: GPO, December 2003), pp. i-ii [hereinafter cited as “FEMA 426”].

2. Robert Powell, “Defending Against Strategic Terrorists Over the Long Run: A Basic Approach to Resource Allocation,” Institute of GovernmentalStudies, Paper WP2006-34, September 2006, p. 3, http://repositories.cdlib.org/igs/WP2006-34.

3. U.S. Department of State, The Inman Report: Report of the Secretary ofState’s Advisory Panel on Overseas Security, 1985, http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/inman/.

4. U.S. Department of State, Overseas Security Advisory Council, SecurityGuidelines for American Enterprises Abroad, June 2005, https://www.osac.gov/Reports/report.cfm?contentID=30023.

5. U.S. Department of Justice, Vulnerability Assessment of FederalFacilities, June 1995; WBDG Safe Committee,  “Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets,” Whole Building Design Guide, October 31, 2008, http://www.wbdg.org/design/provide_security.php.

6. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Interagency Security Council,ISC Security Design Criteria for New Federal Office Buildings and MajorModernization Projects, Part I, September 29, 2004; ISC Security Design Criteria for New Federal Office Buildings and Major Modernization Projects: Tables,Design Tactics, and Additional Risk Guidelines, Part II, September 29, 2004; ISCSecurity Standards for Leased Space, September 29, 2004.

7. Joseph L. Smith and Dan E. Kelley, “UFC/ISC Security Design CriteriaOverview and Comparison,” Whole Building Design Guide, May 24, 2008,http://www.wbdg.org/resources/ufc_isc.php?r=perform_req.

8. FEMA 426, p. i.

9. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Site and Urban Design forSecurity: Guidance Against Potential Terrorist Attacks, Risk Management Series,no. 430, December 2007, p. i [hereinafter cited as “FEMA 430”].

10. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Risk Assessment: A How-ToGuide to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings, Risk ManagementSeries, no. 452, January 2005, p. i.

11. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Federal Building andFire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster: Final Report on theCollapse of the World Trade Center Towers, NIST NCSTAR 1 (Washington, D.C.:GPO, September 2005) [hereinafter cited as “NIST NCSTAR 1”].

12. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Federal Building andFire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster: Final Report on theCollapse of World Trade Center Building 7, NIST NCSTAR 1A (Washington,D.C.: GPO, August 2008), p. xxxvi [hereinafter cited as “NIST NCSTAR 1A”].

13. NIST NCSTAR 1, pp. 201-222.

14. NIST NCSTAR 1A, pp. 68-69.

15. NIST NCSTAR 1; NIST NCSTAR 1A.

16. National Institute of Standards and Technology, “Safer Buildings AreGoal of New Code Changes Based on Recommendations from NISTWorld TradeCenter Investigation,” October 1, 2008,http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/techbeat/tb2008_1001.htm.

17. Eric Lipton, “Effort to Ease Skyscraper Codes Fails,” New York Times,September 21, 2008; NIST NCSTAR 1, pp. 51, 201.

18. WBDGSafe Committee, “Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets.”

19. American Society of Civil Engineers, “Model Building Codes,” May 2,2008,  http://www.asce.org/pressroom/news/policy_details.cfm?hdlid= 524</A>; Stuart.L. Knoop, “Security in the Built Environment,” in Joseph A. Demkin, ed., SecurityPlanning and Design: A Guide for Architects and Building Design Professionals,American Institute of Architects (Hoboken, NJ: JohnWiley & Sons, 2004), p. 2.

20. New York City Construction Code, Building Code (effective July 1, 2008);New York City Fire Code (effective July 1, 2008).

21. New York City Construction Code, Building Code (effective July 1, 2008).

22. New York City Construction Code, §BC-1625 (effective July 1, 2008).

23. New York City Fire Code, §FC-101.2 (effective July 1, 2008).

24. For more information on retrofitting existing commercial buildings, see:Federal Emergency Management Agency, Incremental Protection for ExistingCommercial Buildings from Terrorist Attack: Providing Protection to People andBuildings, Risk Management Series, no. 459, April 2008 [hereinafter cited as“FEMA 459”].

Chapter One: The Threat to Buildings from Explosive Devices

1. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Science and TechnologyDirectorate, National Plan for Research and Development in Support of CriticalInfrastructure Protection, 2004, http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/ST_2004_NCIP_RD_PlanFINALApr05.pdf;FEMA 430, Ch. 1, p. 12.

2. U.S. Department of Defense, Report of the DoD Commission on BeirutInternational Airport Terrorist Act, October 23, 1983, December 20, 1983, p. 99,
http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AMH/XX/MidEast/Lebanon-1982-1984/DODReport/index.html; FEMA 430, Ch. 1, pp. 13-14.

3. FEMA 430, Ch. 1, p. 17.

4. Insurance Information Institute, “Terrorism:Worst Terrorist AttacksInsured Property Losses,”www.iii.org/media/facts/statsbyissue/terrorism/?table_sort_745205=7.

5. FEMA 430, Ch. 1, p. 21.

6. American Academy of Actuaries, “Actuaries Disclose Potential TerrorismCosts,” March 31, 2006, http://www.actuary.org/pdf/casualty/terrorism0306.pdf.

7. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Services, Iraqi Refugees andInternally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?, RhodaMargesson, Jeremy Sharp, and Andora Brunno, October 3, 2007, p. 10,http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/94104.pdf.

8. Hala Gorani, “Hotel Blasts Kill Dozens in Jordan,” CNN, November 10,2005, http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/meast/11/09/jordan.blasts/index.html.

9. Primary structural elements are defined as those structural elements thatprovide the majority of the building’s capacity for carrying loads.

10. FEMA 426, Ch. 4, p. 6.

11. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, p. 10.

12. Eve Hinman, “Blast Safety of the Building Envelope,” Whole BuildingDesign Guidehttp://www.wbdg.org/resources/env_blast.php.

13. Robert Smilowitz, email message to NYPD, November 28, 2008.

14. FEMA 430, pp. 20-21.

15. Robert Smilowitz, “Designing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats,”Whole Building Design Guidehttp://www.wbdg.org/resources/resistexplosivethreat.php?r=secure_safe.

Chapter Two: The NYPD Risk-Tiering System

1. For example, FEMA’s risk equation is: Risk = Asset Value x Threat Ratingx Vulnerability Rating. FEMA 426, Ch. 1, p. 36. For other types of risk analysissee Nancy A. Renfroe and Joseph L. Smith, “Threat/Vulnerability Assessments andRisk Analysis,” Whole Building Design Guide,http://www.wbdg.org/resources/riskanalysis.php.

2. For example, a general threat to subway systems worldwide emerged afterthe 2004 Madrid bombings.

3. FEMA 430, Ch. 2, p. 9.

4. NIST NCSTAR 1A, pp. 18-21, 47-48.

5. The NYPD Counterterrorism Bureau can assist in determining risk levelsfor neighboring buildings.

6. All values are expressed in 2009 dollars.

Chapter Three: Guidelines on Perimeter Security

1. See Zoning Resolution of the City of New York, §35-24 (effective July2008), §35-63 (effective July 2001), and §81-83 (effective April 1983).

2. FEMA 430, Ch. 5, pp. 6-7.

3. U.S. Department of Defense, Report of the DoD Commission on BeirutInternational Airport Terrorist Act; FEMA 430, Ch. 1, pp. 13-14.

4. FEMA 430, Ch. 5, pp. 6-7.

5. FEMA 430, Ch. 4, p. 10.

6. U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security, Office ofPhysical Security Programs, Certified Anti-Ram Vehicle Barrier Ratings: SD-STD-02.01, Revision A, March 2003.

7. Rules of the City of New York, Title 34, §7-06(c)(3).

8. Rules of the City of New York, Title 34, §7-04(a)(20)(i).

9. Rebecca Grant, “Death in the Desert,” Air Force Magazine 89, no. 6, June2006,
http://www.airforcemagazine.com/MagazineArchive/Pages/2006/June%202006/0606Desert.aspx
.

10. FEMA 426, Ch. 2, pp. 16-19.

11. FEMA 426, Ch. 2, p. 11.

Chapter Four: Guidelines on Building Design

1. FEMA 426, Ch. 2, pp. 7-8, 13.

2. The NYPD Counterterrorism Bureau can assist in determining risk levelsfor neighboring buildings.

3. Secondary structural elements are defined as those structural elements thatsupport the building’s architectural elements and provide supplemental support forthe building’s primary structural elements.

4. Hinman, “Blast Safety of the Building Envelope.”

5. Rudy Eversburg, “The Pentagon Attack On 9-11: Arlington County (VA)Fire Department Response,” Fire Engineering, November 1, 2002,www.fireengineering.com/articles/article_display.html?id=165238.

6. Ulkumen Rodoplu, Jeffrey L. Arnold, Rifat Tokyay, Gurkan Ersoy, andSerkan Certiner, “Mass-Casualty Terrorist Bombings in Istanbul, Turkey,November 2003: Report of the Events and the Prehospital Emergency Response,”Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 19, no. 2, April - June 2004, pp. 137-141.

7. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, p. 17.

8. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, p. 17.

9. General Services Administration, Standard Test Method for Glazing andWindow Systems Subject to Dynamic Overpressure Loadings, January 1, 2003, p.4,
http://www.protectiveglazing.org/resources/GSA%20TEST%20Method.pdf.

10. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, p. 21.

11. See Zoning Resolution of the City of New York, §81-142 (effective May1982), §81-42 (effective October 2007), §81-731 (effective October 2007), and§91-412 (effective August 1998).

12. Smilowitz, “Designing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats.”

13. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, p. 25.

14. NIST NCSTAR 1, p. 116.

15. New York City Construction Code, §BC-403.9.2, §BC-403.15 (effectiveJuly 1, 2008); Rules of the City of New York, Title 1, §403-01.

16. FEMA 459, Chap. 3, p. 20.

17. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, pp. 10-11.

18. FEMA 430, Ch. 1, p. 21; Building on Ground Zero: Lessons from theWTC Collapse, DVD, produced by Larry Klein (New York: NOVA, 2006).

19. Clive L. Dym, Structural Modeling and Analysis: A Unified Introduction(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 45.

20. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, pp. 10-11.

21. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, p. 11.

22. American Society of Civil Engineers, Minimum Design Loads forBuildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7-05, 2006. See also U.S. Department of Defense, Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse, Unified Facilities Criteria 4-023-03, January 25, 2005, Ch. 1, pp. 2-3.

23. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Best Practices forReducing the Potential for Progressive Collapse in Buildings, NIST NISTIR 7396, February 2007, p. 39 [hereinafter cited as “NIST NISTIR 7396”].

24. NIST NISTIR 7396, p. 43

25. NIST NISTIR 7396, p. 43

26. New York City Construction Code, §BC-1626 (effective July 1, 2008).

Chapter Five: Guidelines on Access Control, Screening & Monitoring

1. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12, Policy for a Common Identification Standard for Federal Employees and Contractors, August 27, 2004, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/gc_1217616624097.shtm; National Institute of Standards and Technology, Computer Security Division, Federal InformationProcessing Standard (FIPS) 201 - Personal Identity Verification of FederalEmployees and Contractors, March 2006, http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips201-1/FIPS-201-1-chng1.pdf.

2. Alan Cowell, “Threats and Responses; Five More Charged in Antiterror Sweep by Police in Britain,” New York Times, April 11, 2004, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEFD81038F932A25757C0A9629C8B63; Her Majesty the Queen v. Mohammad Momin Khawaja, 04-G30282, (Ontario Superior Court of Justice, October 29, 2008), p. 6.

3. Dominic Casciani, “The MenWho Made a Plot Possible,” BBC News,June 15, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6756619.stm.

4. For more information on detection technologies, see: http://www.tsa.gov/approach/tech/index.shtm.

5. FEMA 430, Ch. 5, p. 6.

6. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, pp. 48-50.

7. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, p. 47.

8. FEMA 426, Ch. 2, p. 45.

9. ASIS International, Protection of Assets Manual 3, 2007, Ch.19, Part IV, p. 14.

10. FEMA 430, Ch. 5, p. 12.

11. Dhiren Barot, “Barot’s Targeting Package on the New York Stock Exchange,” NEFA Foundation, pp. 18, 27, http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/Barot/NYSE.pdf.

12. A.H. Tickner and E.C. Poulton, “Monitoring Up to 16 Synthetic Television Pictures Showing a Great Deal of Movement,” Ergonomics 16, no. 4, 1973, pp. 381-401.

13. Dhiren Barot, “Rough Presentation for Gas Limos Project,” NEFAFoundation, p. 26. http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/Barot/GasLimos.pdf.

14. Chicago Police Department, CLEARPath, Chicago’s Alternative Policing Strategy, “Police Observation Devices,” https://portal.chicagopolice.org/portal/page/portal/ClearPath/About%20CPD/POD%20Program; City of London Police, Counter-Terrorism, “Best Value Review Inspection Report,” January, 2005, p. 9, http://inspectorates.homeoffice.gov.uk/hmic/inspections/bvr/cityoflondon/jan05/cityct.pdf?view=Binary.

Chapter Six: Guidelines on Emergency Preparedness

1. Ulkumen Rodoplu, Jeffrey Arnol, and Gurkan Ersoy, “Special Report: Terrorism in Turkey,” Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 18, no. 2, April-June 2003, p. 156.

2. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Services, Pakistan-U.S.Relations, K. Alan Kronstadt, November 10, 2008, p. 4, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33498.pdf; “Deadly Blast Targets Marriott Hotel in Islamabad,” CNN, September 21, 2008, http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/09/20/pakistan.islamabad.marriott.blast/index.html.

3. NIST NCSTAR 1, pp. 23-24, 42, 45-46.

4. NIST NCSTAR 1A, pp. 19-20, 44, 48.

5. NIST NCSTAR 1A, p. 47.

6. NIST NCSTAR 1, pp. 201-222.

7. NIST NCSTAR 1, p. 202.

8. New York City Construction Code, §BC-907, §BC-1001, §BC-1003 (effective July 1, 2008); New York City Fire Code, §FC-901 (effective July 1, 2008).

9. NIST NCSTAR 1, p. 208.

10. NIST NCSTAR 1, pp. 198, 211.

11. NISTNCSTAR 1, p. 211.

12. NIST NCSTAR 1, pp. 119, 131-141.

13. NIST NCSTAR 1, p. 69.

14. NIST NCSTAR 1, p. 190

15. NIST NCSTAR 1, p. 177.

16. New York City Construction Code, §BC-1009 (effective July 1, 2008).

17. New York City Construction Code, §BC-403.11, §BC-403.16 (effective July 1, 2008).

18. NIST NCSTAR 1, pp. 216-217.

19. NIST NCSTAR 1, p. 155.

20. NIST NCSTAR 1, pp. 155-156.

21. NIST NCSTAR 1, pp. 216-217.

22. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, p. 9.

23. New York City Construction Code, §BC-1007.4 (effective July 1, 2008).

24. NIST NCSTAR 1, p. 217.

25. NIST NCSTAR 1, pp. 170-171.

26. NIST NCSTAR 1, p. 219.

Chapter Seven: Guidelines on Air Handling &AirMonitoring Systems

1. Kristan Staudenmayer andWilliam P. Shecter, “Chemical Agents and Terror Medicine” in Shmuel C. Shapira, Jeffrey S. Hammond, and Leonard A. Cole, eds., Essentials of Terror Medicine, (New York: Springer, 2009), p. 224.

2. Jonathan Tucker, ed., Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemicaland Biological Weapons (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000), p. 5.

3. Federation of American Scientists, “NuclearWeapon Effects,” http://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/nuke/effects.htm.

4. Tucker, Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and BiologicalWeapons, pp. 218-219.

5. Jeffrey R. Ryan and Jan F. Glarum, Biosecurity and Bioterrorism:Containing and Preventing Biological Threats (Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc., 2008), pp. 144-147.

6. The 9/11 Commission Report: The Final Report of the NationalCommission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (New York:W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004), p. 151.

7. Nasir bin Hamd al-Fahd, “A Treatise on the Legal Status of Using Weapons of Mass Destruction against Infidels,” Carnegie Endowment forInternational Peace, May 2003, p. 8, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/static/npp/fatwa.pdf.

8. Anne Stenersen, “Al-Qaeda’s Thinking on CBRN: a Case Study,” in Magnus Ranstorp and Magnus Normark, eds., Unconventional Weapons andInternational Terrorism: Challenges and New Approaches, Cass Series on Political Violence (New York: Routledge, 2009), p. 55.

9. Garrett Therolf and Alexandra Zavis, “U.S. Says 14 Soldiers Slain in Iraq,” Los Angeles Times, June 4, 2007, http://articles.latimes.com/2007/jun/04/world/fg-iraq4.

10. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guidance for ProtectingBuilding Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or RadiologicalAttacks (Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH Publications, May 2002), p. 11.

11. CDC, Guidance for Protecting Building Environments, p. 12.

12. CDC, Guidance for Protecting Building Environments, p. 12.

13. CDC, Guidance for Protecting Building Environments, pp. 11-14.

14. New York City Construction Code, §MC-401.5 (effective July 1, 2008).

15. CDC, Guidance for Protecting Building Environments, pp. 7-10.

16. Gary S. Settles, “Fluid Mechanics and Homeland Security,” AnnualReview of Fluid Mechanics 38, 2006, p. 99, http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/toc/fluid/38/1.

17. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, pp. 35-38.

18. FEMA 426, Ch. 3, p. 35.

19. CDC, Guidance for Protecting Building Environments, pp. 16-18.

20. CDC, Guidance for Protecting Building Environments, pp. 16-18.

21. Penny J. Hitchcock, Michael Mair, Thomas V. Inglesby, et al., “Improving Performance of HVAC Systems to Reduce Exposure to Aerosolized Infectious Agents in Buildings: Recommendations to Reduce Risks Posed by Biological Attacks,” Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice and Science4, no. 1, 2006, pp. 41-54, http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/bsp.2006.4.41?cookieSet=1.

22. FEMA 426, Ch. 5, p. 11.

23. FEMA 426, Ch. 5, pp. 8-13.

24. Hitchcock, et al., “Improving Performance of HVAC Systems to Reduce Exposure to Aerosolized Infectious Agents in Buildings,” pp. 41-54.

25. FEMA 426, Ch. 5, p. 13.

26. FEMA 426, Ch. 5, p. 13.

27. CDC, Guidance for Protecting Building Environments, pp. 12, 15-16.

28. CDC, Guidance for Protecting Building Environments, p. 20.

29. FEMA 426, Ch. 2, pp. 47-49.

30. CDC, Guidance for Protecting Building Environments, p. 19.

31. FEMA 426, Ch. 5, pp. 26-31.

32. FEMA 426, Ch. 5, pp. 27-29.

33. FEMA 426, Ch. 5, pp. 29-31.

34. CDC, Guidance for Protecting Building Environments, pp. 15-16.

35. When possible, building control panels and systems should be networked to local law enforcement coordination centers. See Chapter Four.

36. The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States RegardingWeapons of Mass Destruction, Report to the President of the UnitedStates, March 31, 2005, p. 501, http://www.wmd.gov/report/wmd_report.pdf.

Appendix A: Calculating a Building’s Risk Tier

1. The NYPD Counterterrorism Bureau can assist in determining risk levels for neighboring buildings.

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