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Recycling and Waste Prevention Report

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NYC Wastes Less! November 2004 electronic newsletter (1,506KB)
The electronic newsletter from the NYC Department of Sanitation (DSNY) Bureau of Waste Prevention, Reuse and swmp/recycling (BWPRR).

November 2004 issue:

  • New contract ensures future of NYC swmp/recycling
  • How to order swmp/recycling materials
  • Leaf collection & electronics swmp/recycling info
  • Golden Apple Awards info for NYC schools
  • DSNY-BWPRR wins national award
  • NYC Compost Project returns
  • swmp/recycling highlights from draft solid waste management plan
  • Frequently asked questions
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Processing and Marketing Recyclables in New York City: Rethinking Economic, Historical, and Comparative Assumptions
May 2004
This report discusses current swmp/recycling economics, the history of New York City’s swmp/recycling program in light of such economics, and an in-depth comparison of NYC to several large U.S. cities.

Due to the size of the file, this report is divided into the following sections:
Table of Contents/Director’s Note/Acknowledgments/Abbreviations and Definitions (1,773KB)
Introduction (108KB)
Chapter 1: swmp/recycling Economics (3,049KB)
• The swmp/recycling Market
• Recycled Materials Prices
• Competition Between Various Buyers and Sellers
• World Markets
• Regional Factors
• Government Intervention into Markets
• Chapter Conclusion: Applied Economics
Chapter 2: Modern History of NYC swmp/recycling (1,878KB)
• “Modern” swmp/recycling Comes to New York
• Establishing the Citywide swmp/recycling Program
• Processing Recyclables: Early Problems
• Early Initiatives to Develop Private Capacity to Process NYC Recyclables
• Developing Private Capacity: What Happened Instead
• The Lessons of History
Chapter 3: Lessons from Other U.S. Cities (2,795KB)
• The Case of San Francisco
• The Case of Los Angeles
• The Case of Chicago
• The Case of Seattle
• Chapter Conclusion: Applied Comparison
Appendix I: State swmp/recycling Goals and Mandates (90KB)
Appendix II: Beyond Case Studies: Comparative Studies of swmp/recycling Rates (102KB)
Appendix III: Waste Prevention Policy and Planning (243KB)
Appendix IV: Public Education about swmp/recycling (1,586KB)
Appendix V: NYC Department of Sanitation Annual swmp/recycling Report for 2002 submitted to the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation (2.034KB)
Appendix VI: Comparative swmp/recycling Data for Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle (805KB)
Endnotes (102KB)
Notes to Illustrations (42KB)
The following appendices are large files, some are broken up into several sections:

New York City Department of Sanitation, Office of Operations Planning, Evaluation, and Control, New York City swmp/recycling Strategy White Paper, (4,635KB) January 1988.
New York City Department of Sanitation, Office of Operations Planning, Preliminary swmp/recycling Plan, Fiscal Year 1991.
Section 1 (3,073KB)   |   2 (2,858KB)   |   3 (3,924KB)
New York City Department of Sanitation, A Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan for New York City and Final Generic Impact Statement, August 1992.
Section 1 (860KB)   |   2 (2,530KB)   |   3 (2,818KB)   |   4 (1,572KB)   |   5 (4,297KB)   |   6 (3,487KB)   |   7 (3,359KB)   |   8 (2,537KB)   |   9 (3,451KB)   |   10 (2,993KB)   |   11 (5,576KB)   |   12 (3,964KB)   |   13 (4,773KB)
New York City Department of Sanitation, A Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan for New York City and Final Generic Impact Statement, Appendix Volume 4.1, Waste Management Components, August 1992.
Section 1 (3,696KB)   |   2 (2,212KB)
Urban Research Center, New York University/Appleseed for the New York City Department of Sanitation, Exploring Economic Development Opportunities in swmp/recycling, August 1993.
Section 1 (2,617KB)   |   2 (3,208KB)

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New York City MSW Composting Report: Summary of Research Project and Conceptual Pilot Facility Design
January 2004
This report explores the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) composting technology, examines the quality of compost produced from this technology, and presents a theoretical proposal for how such technology can be further tested within New York City.

Due to the size of the file, this report is divided into the following sections:

Director’s Note/Acknowledgments (140KB)
Abbreviations and Definitions (61KB)
Introduction: Goal and Scope of the Project (203KB)
• MSW Composting: The Basic Concept and a Brief History
• MSW Composting in the Context of New York City
• Report Structure
• Summary of Key Findings
• Conclusions
Chapter 1: The New York City Composting Trials (954KB)
• Summary
• Research Questions
• New York City Composting Trials
Chapter 2: Compost Quality (180KB)
• Summary
• Research Questions
• New York State Regulatory Issues
• Quality of New York City MSW Compost
• Quality of Compost from the Surveyed Facilities
• Other Test Parameters
• Biosolids
Chapter 3: Four-Facility Survey (1,167KB)
• Summary
• Research Questions
• Facility Surveys
• Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Chapter 4: Conclusions (62KB)
• Summary of Key Findings
• Components of a Successful MSW-Composting Facility
Chapter 5: Learning Objectives and Conceptual Design (1,463KB)
• Summary
• Materials Recovery and Composting
• Design Considerations
• Learning Objectives
• Facility Layout and Description of Components
Chapter 6: Projected Recovery Rates (66KB)
• Summary
• Projected Material-Recovery Rates
• Recovery Rates
• Projected Annual Facility Recovery Rate
Chapter 7: Cost Estimates (50KB)
• Summary
• Cost Per Ton
• Financial Analysis
Endnotes (37KB)
Appendix A: Waste Characterization for Composting Pilot Study (1,651KB)
Appendix B: Marlborough Facility Scale Receipts (4,164KB)
Appendix C: Marlborough Facility Temperature Logs (525KB)
Appendix D: New York City Institutional/Commercial/Industrial Organic Waste Composting Economic and Technical Viability Final Report (1,424KB)
Appendix E: Data on New York City’s Biosolids (2001/2002) (5,313KB)
Appendix F: Data from the New York City Composting Trials (3,131KB)
Appendix G: Interpretation of Waste and Compost Tests (3,093KB)
Appendix H: Data from the Four-Facility Survey (4,416KB)
Appendix I: Revised Preliminary Design and Cost Estimate for Material Recovery Facility Front End for Co-Composting Pilot Facility (610KB)
Appendix J: Life Cycle Financial Analysis for New York City MSW Composting Facility (286KB)

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New York City swmp/recycling In Context: A Comprehensive Analysis of swmp/recycling in Major U.S. Cities August 2001
Evaluates NYC’s 20 percent swmp/recycling rate in the context of the swmp/recycling rates of other U.S. cities. The report also details the various measures and calculations that are used by different jurisdictions to calculate their swmp/recycling rates.

Due to the size of the file, this report is divided into the following sections:
Introductory pages (4,117KB)
• Cover
• Table of contents
• List of tables and figures
• Abbreviations and definitions
• Director’s note
History of the program
Early challenges to “modern” swmp/recycling in NYC (3,083KB)
Comparing New York’s swmp/recycling rate to other cities (4,314KB)
• Explaining remaining differences part 1 (1,703KB) | part 2 (6,475KB)
Comparisons in context (1,861KB)
Implications for New York City (5,183KB)
Endnotes (102KB)
• Appendix I: Municipal swmp/recycling survey part 1 (4,441KB) | part 2 (4,471KB)
Appendix II: NYC’s swmp/recycling law in force at the end of 2001 (133KB)
Appendices III, IV, and V: NYC diversion rates; Source data; and Data for the City of Portland, Oregon (443KB)

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Composting in New York City: A Complete Program History August 2001
Summarizes the Department of Sanitation’s various pilot and on-going programs over the last decade to compost the organic portion of the City’s waste stream. The report also offers recommendations for future pilot study and possible new program development in this area.

Due to the size of the file, this report is divided into the following sections:
Introductory pages (321KB)
• Cover
• Table of contents
• List of tables
• Abbreviations and definitions
• Director’s note
• What is composting?
Two models for centralized composting: source-separated and mixed material (510KB)
• Source-separated leaf and yard waste
• Source-separated food waste
• Mixed-material pilot
Decentralized (on-site) composting (716KB)
• Composting on-site at city institutions
• The compost project outreach and education program
• Backyard-composting pilot
• In-sink, food-waste disposals
• Future directions
Appendices I and II: Waste characterization and Memorandum of understanding (1,648KB)
Appendix III: Intensive program interim report (7,740KB)

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NYC Recycles: More Than a Decade of Outreach Activities by the NYC Department of Sanitation, FY 1986–1999 (2,600KB) Fall 1999
Documents the major public education and outreach activities that supported the development and implementation of NYC’s groundbreaking swmp/recycling program.
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swmp/recycling: What Do New Yorkers Think? Five Years of Market Research (1,085KB) Fall 1999
Summarizes the market research the Department conducted from 1995 to 1999 about New Yorkers’ attitudes toward residential swmp/recycling and swmp/recycling alternatives.
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Mixed Waste Processing in New York City: A Pilot Test Evaluation (2,525KB) October 1999
Describes the Department’s three-part pilot program to measure the effectiveness of mixed-waste processing in recovering recyclables from City collection districts with historically low swmp/recycling diversion rates.
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Backyard Composting in New York City: A Comprehensive Program Evaluation (1,441KB) June 1999
Presents the results of the Department’s yearlong Backyard Composting Pilot Program. In this Program, the Department worked with the City’s Botanical Gardens to implement backyard composting in four test neighborhoods and at the same time researched residents’ receptivity, participation rates, and waste composition impacts of the Program.
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Waste Prevention Reports - The following ten reports were prepared by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the NYC Department of Sanitation/Bureau of Waste Prevention, Reuse & swmp/recycling:
Measuring Waste Prevention in New York City  [With Foreword to the Waste Prevention Report Series] (485KB)
Survey of Waste Prevention Programs in Major U.S. Cities, States and Counties (210KB)
Procurement Strategies of Federal Agencies and Jurisdictions Beyond New York City for Waste Prevention and Recycled Products (84KB)
Interagency Task Force Action Plan to Encourage the Use of Recycled-Content Building Materials (203KB)
Materials Exchange Research Report(72KB)
The attachment to this report entitled: "New York City Materials Exchange Roundtable: A Final Report" can be found on the Internet at
Characterization of New York City's Solid Waste Stream (352KB)
Life-Span Costing Analysis Case Studies (226KB)
Packaging Restrictions Research: Targeting Packaging for Reduction, Reuse, Recycling and Recycled Content(348KB)
The attachment to this report entitled: "Packaging Waste: Whose Responsibility Is It Anyway?" can be found on the Internet at
NYCitySen$e Project Summary (408KB)
NYC WasteLe$$ Summary Report (4,302KB)
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