The events of September 11, 2001, exposed hundreds of thousands of people in
New York City and beyond to distressing experiences, events and images. Studies
conducted after 9/11 suggest that rescue, recovery and clean up workers; friends
and relatives of victims and survivors of the WTC attacks; and those who
repeatedly witnessed the events on television and in newspapers are at greater
risk of developing long-term 9/11- related psychological problems.
Psychological Impact of the WTC Attacks
People exposed to traumatic events such as the 9/11 attacks and their
aftermath may experience emotions such as fear, helplessness, or horror,
especially if the events include serious injuries or death.
Most people exposed to the WTC attack showed some signs of stress in the
immediate and short-term aftermath of the event. This is a normal reaction
that usually disappears in a few weeks. Some people, however, continue to
experience stress or their symptoms worsen, even years after the WTC attacks.
The most common long term mental health conditions seen in those exposed
to the traumatic events of 9/11 are post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD),
depression, general anxiety disorder (GAD), and substance use disorders. A
person can suffer from more than one of these conditions.
Trauma related disorders can be treated and help is available.
Mental Health Conditions Most Commonly Associated with the WTC Attacks
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
People, who continue to experience stress for a long time after their
exposure to the events of 9/11 or have stress that gets worse with time may
suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and should consider seeking
Symptoms: PTSD is an intense physical and emotional response to the thoughts
and reminders of the traumatic event; this response lasts for weeks, months or
even years after the exposure. The three most common symptoms of PTSD are:
Re-living the events in flashbacks and nightmares along with feelings of
guilt, extreme fear of harm, and numbing of emotions. Shaking, chills, headaches
and fast heart beat are also common.
Avoiding places and activities that reminds the person of the events of 9/11
or feeling detached from others.
Increased reactions such as feeling overly alert or easily startled, and
experiencing difficulty sleeping, irritability and angry outbursts.
Other symptoms may include, panic attacks (sudden instances of intense fear
and discomfort and fast heart beat, sweating, trembling, feelings of choking,
shortness of breath), depression, drug and alcohol misuse, feeling isolated and
thoughts of suicide.
Learn more about PTSD from the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene,
and from the National Center for PTSD:
People who directly witnessed the WTC attacks and those who participated in
the rescue and recovery efforts may be at increased risk for developing
depression, with or without PTSD. Depression can be a disabling condition
that affects many aspects of a person’s life.
Symptoms: extreme sadness, inability to enjoy things, guilt, helplessness,
hopelessness, trouble sleeping or concentrating, loss of appetite and thoughts
of suicide and/or death.
Learn more about depression from the NYC Department of Health and Mental
People exposed to the WTC attacks are also at increased risk for developing
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), a mental health condition characterized by
persistent, excessive and uncontrollable worry and anxiety about daily life and
Symptoms: Restlessness and irritability, muscle tension, difficulties
with concentrating, difficulty falling or staying asleep, body-aches, trembling,
jumpiness, headache, difficulty swallowing, stomach discomfort, diarrhea,
sweating, hot flashes, and feeling lightheaded and breathless.
Learn more about GAD from the National Institute of Mental Health:
Stress and exposure to traumatic event may increase the risk of developing
substance use disorders (such as dependence on alcohol and other drugs,
including tobacco) or cause relapse among people who previously had a substance
People who have a substance use problem may feel they:
cannot cut down on their drinking or drug use
annoyed when people criticize their drinking or drug use
cannot start the day without an “eye-opener” drink first thing in the
need to have alcohol or drugs in order to feel better
People with this type of disorder continue drinking or taking drugs despite
problems at work, school and home, or placing themselves and others in hazardous
situations such as driving after drinking, or have problems with the legal
Learn more about substance use disorders from the New York City Department of
Health and Mental Hygiene, and the National Center for PTSD: