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Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments

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Preface
This 2008 document revises existing guidelines and supersedes all prior editions.  It is based both on a review of the current literature regarding fungi (mold) and on comments from a review panel consisting of experts in the fields of mycology/microbiology, environmental health sciences, environmental/occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, and environmental remediation. 

These guidelines are intended for use by building owners and managers, environmental contractors and environmental consultants.  It is also available for general distribution to anyone concerned about indoor mold growth.  The attached fact sheet, “Mold Growth: Prevention and Cleanup for Building Owners and Managers,” is a simplified summary of these guidelines, which may be useful for building owners, managers and workers.  It is strongly recommended that the complete guidelines be referred to before addressing the assessment or remediation of indoor mold growth.

In 1993, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) first issued recommendations on addressing mold growth indoors.  In 2000, DOHMH made major revisions to the initial guidance and made minor edits in 2002. 

The terms fungi and mold are used interchangeably throughout this document. 

This document should be used only as guidance.  It is not a substitute for a site-specific assessment and remediation plan and is not intended for use in critical care facilities such as intensive care units, transplant units, or surgical suites.  Currently there are no United States Federal, New York State, or New York City regulations for the assessment or remediation of mold growth. 

These guidelines are available to the public, but may not be reprinted or used for any commercial purpose except with the express written permission of the DOHMH.  These guidelines are subject to change as more information regarding this topic becomes available.

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene would like to thank the following individuals and organizations for participating in the revision of these guidelines.  Please note that these guidelines do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the participants or their organizations.

Name Company/Institution
Donald Ahearn, PhD Georgia State University
Scott Armour, MS Armour Applied Science LLC
John Banta, CAIH Restoration Consultants
Don Bremner Environmental Abatement Council of Ontario – Restoration Environmental Contractors
Terry Brennan, MS Camroden Associates Inc.
Armando Chamorro, CIH CIH Environmental
Ginger Chew, ScD Columbia University
Sidney Crow, PhD Georgia State University
Susan Conrath, PhD, MPH US Public Health Service, Indoor Environments Division
Dorr Dearborn, MD Rainbow Childrens Hospital
Marie-Alix d'Halewyn Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec
Eric Esswein, MPH, CIH US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Elissa Favata, MD Environmental and Occupational Health Associates
Jean Goldberg, MS, CSP, CIH The New York University Langone Medical Center
Ling-Ling Hung, PhD US Public Health Service, Division of Federal Occupational Health
Bruce Jarvis, PhD University of Maryland at College Park Dept of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Eckardt Johanning, MD, MS Fungal Research Group Foundation, Inc.
Susan Klitzman, DrPH Hunter College of the City University of New York
Laura Kolb, MPH US Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Environments Division
Ed Light, CIH Building Dynamics
Bruce Lippy, PhD The Lippy Group
Gerald Llewellyn, PhD State of Delaware, Division of Public Health
J David Miller, PhD Carleton University, Department of Chemistry
Philip Morey, PhD, CIH Environ Corporation
David Newman, MA, MS New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health
Ted Outwater US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Alex Potievsky New York City, Citywide Office of Occupational Safety and Health
Ken Ruest Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Virginia Salares, PhD Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
AnnMarie Santiago New York City Department of Housing Preservation & Development
Bill Sothern, MS, CIH Microecologies Inc.
Cole Stanton Fiberlock
Bruce Stewart, CIH, ROH Environmental Abatement Council of Ontario – Pinchin Environmental Ltd.
John Tancredi Environmental Contractors Association of New York City – Pinnacle Environmental Corp.
Donald Weekes, CIH, CSP InAIR Environmental Ltd.
Chin Yang, Ph.D. Prestige EnviroMicrobiology Inc

We would also like to thank the many others who offered opinions, comments, and assistance at various stages during the development of these guidelines.

These guidelines were prepared by the Environmental and Occupational Disease Epidemiology Unit of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.  This document, and any future revisions, is available online.  For further information please call 311 or (212) NEW-YORK (from outside the City).

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Introduction
Fungi (mold) are present almost everywhere.  In an indoor environment hundreds of different kinds of mold are able to grow wherever there is moisture and an organic substrate (food source). They can grow on building and other materials, including:  the paper on gypsum wallboard (drywall); ceiling tiles; wood products; paint; wallpaper; carpeting; some furnishings; books/papers; clothes; and other fabrics.  Mold can also grow on moist, dirty surfaces such as concrete, fiberglass insulation, and ceramic tiles.  It is neither possible nor warranted to eliminate the presence of all indoor fungal spores and fragments; however, mold growth indoors can and should be prevented and removed if present.

The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an approach to address potential and observed mold growth on structural materials in commercial, school, and residential buildings.  Mold growth in critical care areas of health-care facilities such as intensive care units or surgery suites may pose significant health concerns to patients.  This document is not intended for such situations.  Please visit the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)  for more information on dealing with mold growth and its cleanup in health-care facilities.1 Mold on bathroom tile grout, in shower stalls, and on bathtubs is a common occurrence.  Occupants can control this growth through frequent use of household cleaners.

Water accumulation in indoor environments can lead to mold growth (and other environmental problems), which has been associated with human health effects (see Appendix A).2-6 Indoor mold growth can be prevented or minimized, however, by actively maintaining, inspecting, and correcting buildings for moisture problems and immediately drying and managing water-damaged materials.  In the event that mold growth does occur, this guide is intended to assist those responsible for maintaining facilities in evaluating and correcting this problem.

Removing mold growth and correcting the underlying cause of water accumulation can help to reduce mold exposures and related health symptoms.7,8 Prompt remediation of mold-damaged materials and infrastructure repair should be the primary response to mold growth in buildings.  The simplest, most expedient remediation that properly and safely removes mold growth from buildings should be used.  Extensive mold growth poses more difficult problems that should be addressed on a case-by-case basis in consultation with an appropriate building or environmental health professional.  In all situations, the source of water must be identified and corrected or the mold growth will recur. 

Effective communication with building occupants is an important component of all remedial efforts.  Individuals who believe they have mold-related health problems should see their physicians.  Individuals who may have an occupationally related illness should be referred to an occupational/environmental physician for evaluation, following any needed initial care.  Clinic contact information is available from the New York State Department of Health.

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Environmental Assessment
The presence of mold growth, water damage, or musty odors should be addressed quickly.  In all instances, any sources of water must be identified and corrected and the extent of water damage and any mold growth determined.  Water-damaged materials should be removed or cleaned and dried.  For additional information on cleaning water-damaged materials and personal belongings, refer to the EPA document “Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings.”9

A trained building or environmental health professional may be helpful in assessing the extent of the moisture problem and mold growth and developing a site-specific work plan.  The presence of a trained professional to provide oversight during remediation can also be helpful to ensure quality work and compliance with the work plan.  According to the American Industrial Hygiene Association a trained professional should have, at a minimum, a relevant science or engineering degree and two years of full-time supervised experience in mold assessment.10

Visual Inspection
A visual inspection is the most important initial step in identifying a possible mold problem and in determining remedial strategies.  The extent of any water damage and mold growth should be visually assessed and the affected building materials identified.  A visual inspection should also include observations of hidden areas where damages may be present, such as crawl spaces, attics, and behind wallboard.  Carpet backing and padding, wallpaper, moldings (e.g. baseboards), insulation and other materials that are suspected of hiding mold growth should also be assessed. 

Ceiling tiles, paper-covered gypsum wallboard (drywall), structural wood, and other cellulose-containing surfaces should be given careful attention during a visual inspection.  Ventilation systems should be visually checked for damp conditions and/or mold growth on system components such as filters, insulation, and coils/fins, as well as for overall cleanliness. 

Equipment such as a moisture meter or infrared camera (to detect moisture in building materials) or a borescope (to view spaces in ductwork or behind walls) may be helpful in identifying hidden sources of mold growth, the extent of water damage, and in determining if the water source is active. 

Using personal protective equipment such as gloves and respiratory protection (e.g. N-95 disposable respirator) should be considered if assessment work might disturb mold.  Efforts should also be made to minimize the generation and migration of any dust and mold.

Environmental Sampling
Environmental sampling is not usually necessary to proceed with remediation of visually identified mold growth or water-damaged materials.  Decisions about appropriate remediation strategies can generally be made on the basis of a thorough visual inspection.  Environmental sampling may be helpful in some cases, such as, to confirm the presence of visually identified mold or if the source of perceived indoor mold growth cannot be visually identified.

If environmental samples will be collected, a sampling plan should be developed that includes a clear purpose, sampling strategy, and addresses the interpretation of results. 11,12 Many types of sampling can be performed (e.g. air, surface, dust, and bulk materials) on a variety of fungal components and metabolites, using diverse sampling methodologies.  Sampling methods for fungi are not well standardized, however, and may yield highly variable results that can be difficult to interpret.11-17 Currently, there are no standards, or clear and widely accepted guidelines with which to compare results for health or environmental assessments.

Environmental sampling should be conducted by an individual who is trained in the appropriate sampling methods and is aware of the limitations of the methods used.  Using a laboratory that specializes in environmental mycology is also recommended.  The laboratory should be accredited in microbiology by an independent and reputable certifying organization.

For additional information on sampling, refer to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists’ publication, “Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control” and the American Industrial Hygiene Association’s “ Field Guide for the Determination of Biological Contaminants in Environmental Samples.”11,18

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Remediation
The goal of remediation is to remove or clean mold-damaged materials using work practices that protect occupants by controlling the dispersion of mold from the work area and protect remediation workers from exposures to mold.  The listed remediation methods were designed to achieve this goal; however, they are not meant to exclude other similarly effective methods and are not a substitute for a site-specific work plan.  Since little scientific information exists that evaluates the effectiveness and best practices for mold remediation, these guidelines are based on principles used to remediate common indoor environmental hazards.  These guidelines are not intended for use in critical care facilities such as intensive care units, transplant units, or surgical suites. 

Prior to any remediation, consideration must be given to the potential presence of other environmental hazards, such as asbestos and lead.  These guidelines are based on possible health risks from mold exposure and may be superseded by standard procedures for the remediation of other indoor environmental hazards.   

Moisture Control and Building Repair
In all situations, the underlying moisture problem must be corrected to prevent recurring mold growth.  Indoor moisture can result from numerous causes, such as:  façade and roof leaks; plumbing leaks; floods; condensation; and high relative humidity.  An appropriate building expert may be needed to identify and repair building problems.  An immediate response and thorough cleaning, drying, and/or removal of water-damaged materials will prevent or limit microbial growth. 

Relative humidity should generally be maintained at levels below 65% to inhibit mold growth.19 Short-term periods of higher humidity would not be expected to result in mold growth.20 However, condensation on cold surfaces could result in water accumulation at much lower relative humidity levels.  Relative humidity should be kept low enough to prevent condensation on windows and other surfaces.  

Emphasis should be placed on ensuring proper repairs of the building infrastructure so that water intrusion and moisture accumulation is stopped and does not recur.  

Worker Training
Proper training of workers is critical in successfully and safely remediating mold growth.21,22 Training topics that should be addressed include:

  • Causes of moisture intrusion and mold growth
  • Health concerns related to mold exposure
  • The use of appropriate personal protective equipment
  • Mold remediation work practices, procedures, and methods

For additional information, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences’ publication, “Guidelines for the Protection and Training of Workers Engaged in Maintenance and Remediation Work Associated with Mold” lists minimum training criteria for building maintenance and mold remediation workers that should be completed before addressing indoor mold growth.23 

Trained building maintenance staff can address limited and occasional mold growth.  For larger jobs, more extensively trained mold remediation workers may be needed.

Cleaning Methodsh6 Non-porous materials (e.g. metals, glass, and hard plastics) can almost always be cleaned.  Semi-porous and porous structural materials, such as wood and concrete can be cleaned if they are structurally sound.  Porous materials, such as ceiling tiles and insulation, and wallboards (with more than a small area of mold growth) should be removed and discarded.  Wallboard should be cleaned or removed at least six inches beyond visually assessed mold growth (including hidden areas, see Visual Inspection) or wet or water-damaged areas.24 A professional restoration consultant should be contacted to restore valuable items that have been damaged. 

Cleaning should be done using a soap or detergent solution.  Use the gentlest cleaning method that effectively removes the mold to limit dust generation.  All materials to be reused should be dry and visibly free from mold.  Consideration should also be given to cleaning surfaces and materials adjacent to areas of mold growth for settled spores and fungal fragments.  A vacuum equipped with a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter could also be used to clean these adjacent areas.

Disinfectants are seldom needed to perform an effective remediation because removal of fungal growth remains the most effective way to prevent exposure.  Disinfectant use is recommended when addressing certain specific concerns such as mold growth resulting from sewage waters.  If disinfectants are considered necessary, additional measures to protect workers and occupants may also be required.  Disinfectants must be registered for use by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).  Any antimicrobial products used in a HVAC system must be EPA-registered specifically for that use.

The use of gaseous, vapor-phase, or aerosolized (e.g. fogging) biocides for remedial purposes is not recommended.  Using biocides in this manner can pose health concerns for people in occupied spaces of the building and for people returning to the treated space.  Furthermore, the effectiveness of these treatments is unproven and does not address the possible health concerns from the presence of the remaining non-viable mold. 

Quality Assurance Indicators
Measures to ensure the quality and effectiveness of remediation should be undertaken regardless of the project size.  Evaluations during as well as after remediation should be conducted to confirm the effectiveness of remedial work, particularly for large-scale remediation. At minimum, these quality assurance indicators should be followed and documented:

  • The underlying moisture problem was identified and eliminated
  • Isolation of the work area was appropriate and effective
  • Mold removal and worksite cleanup was performed according to the site-specific plan
  • Any additional moisture or mold damage discovered during remediation was properly addressed
  • Upon completion of remediation, surfaces are free from visible dust and debris. 
  • If environmental sampling was performed, the results of such sampling were evaluated by a trained building or environmental health professional.10
Restoring Treated Spaces
After completing mold remediation and correcting moisture problems, building materials that were removed should be replaced and brought to an intact and finished condition.  The use of new building materials that do not promote mold growth should be considered.  Anti-microbial paints are usually unnecessary after proper mold remediation.  They should not be used in lieu of mold removal and proper moisture control, but may be useful in areas that are reasonably expected to be subject to moisture. 

Remediation Procedures
Three different sizes of remediation and the remediation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are described below.  Currently, existing research does not relate the amount of mold growth to the frequency or severity of health effects.  However, as the presence of moldy materials increases, so does the potential for exposure8 and the need to limit the spread of mold-containing dusts and worker exposures.  As such, the size of the area impacted by mold growth as well as practical considerations were used to help define remedial procedures. 

Since the following areas were arbitrarily selected, site-specific conditions must be considered in choosing adequate remediation procedures.  For more information on the unique characteristics of building types and occupancies that may influence remediation procedures refer to the American Industrial Hygiene Association’s publication, “Recognition, Evaluation, and Control of Indoor Mold.”25

Small Isolated Areas  (10 square feet or less) – e.g. ceiling tiles, small areas on walls

       (a) Remediation can be conducted by trained building maintenance staff.  Such persons should receive training on proper cleaning methods, personal protection, and potential health hazards associated with mold exposure.  This training can be performed as part of a program to comply with the requirements of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200). 

      (b) Respiratory protection (e.g., N-95 disposable respirator), in accordance with the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134), is recommended.  Gloves and eye protection should also be worn. 

     (c) The work area should be unoccupied. 

     (d) If work may impact difficult-to-clean surfaces or items (e.g. carpeting, electronic equipment), the floor of the work area, egress pathways, and other identified materials/belongings should be removed or covered with plastic sheeting and sealed with tape before remediation.

     (e) Efforts should be made to reduce dust generation.  Dust suppression methods particularly during any cutting or resurfacing of materials are highly recommended.  Methods to consider include:  cleaning or gently misting surfaces with a dilute soap or detergent solution prior to removal; the use of High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) vacuum-shrouded tools; or using a vacuum equipped with a HEPA filter at the point of dust generation.  Work practices that create excessive dust should be avoided.

    (f) Moldy materials that can be cleaned should be cleaned using a soap or detergent solution.  Materials that cannot be cleaned should be removed from the building in a sealed plastic bag(s).  Plastic sheeting should be discarded after use.  There are no special requirements for the disposal of moldy materials.

    (g) The work area and areas used by workers for egress should be HEPA-vacuumed (a vacuum equipped with a High-Efficiency Particulate Air filter) or cleaned with a damp cloth and/or mop and a soap or detergent solution. 

    (h) All areas should be left dry and visibly free from mold, dust, and debris.  Check that other quality assurance indicators (see Quality Insurance Indicators) have also been met.

Medium-Sized Isolated Areas  (10 – 100 square feet)

    (a) Remediation can be conducted by trained building maintenance staff.  Such persons should receive training on proper cleaning methods, personal protection, and potential health hazards associated with mold exposure.  This training can be performed as part of a program to comply with the requirements of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200). 

    (b) Respiratory protection (e.g., N-95 disposable respirator), in accordance with the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134), is recommended.  Gloves and eye protection should also be worn. 

    (c) The work area should be unoccupied. 

    (d) Cover the floor, egress pathways, and items left in the work area with plastic sheeting and seal with tape before remediation.

    (e) Seal ventilation ducts/grills and other openings in the work area with plastic sheeting.  The HVAC system servicing this area may need to be shut down to properly seal vents.

    (f) Efforts should be made to reduce dust generation.  Dust suppression methods particularly during any cutting or resurfacing of materials are highly recommended.  Methods to consider include:  cleaning or gently misting surfaces with a dilute soap or detergent solution prior to removal; the use of High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) vacuum-shrouded tools; or using a vacuum equipped with a HEPA filter at the point of dust generation.  Work practices that create excessive dust should be avoided.

    (g) Moldy materials that can be cleaned should be cleaned using a soap or detergent solution.  Materials that cannot be cleaned should be removed from the building in sealed plastic bags.  Plastic sheeting should be discarded after use.  There are no special requirements for disposal of moldy materials.

    (h) The work area and areas used by workers for egress should be HEPA-vacuumed and cleaned with a damp cloth and/or mop and a soap or detergent solution.   

    (i) All areas should be left dry and visibly free from mold, dust, and debris.  Check that other quality assurance indicators (see Quality Insurance Indicators) have also been met.

Large Areas  (greater than 100 square feet in a contiguous area) – e.g. on separate walls in a    single room

 Properly trained and equipped mold remediation workers should conduct the remediation.  The presence of a trained building or environmental health professional (see Environmental Assessment) to provide oversight during remediation may be helpful to ensure quality work and compliance with the work plan.  The following procedures are recommended:

    (a) Personnel trained in the handling of mold-damaged materials equipped with:

         i.    A minimum of half-face elastomeric respirators with P-100 filters used in accordance with the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134)

         ii.   Full body coveralls with head and foot coverings

         iii.  Gloves and eye protection

    (b) Containment of the affected area:

         i.    The HVAC system servicing this area should be shut down during remediation.

         ii.   Isolation of the work area using plastic sheeting sealed with duct tape.  Furnishings should be removed from the area.  Ventilation ducts/grills, any other openings, and remaining fixtures/furnishings should be covered with plastic sheeting sealed with duct tape.

         iii. Consider using an exhaust fan equipped with a HEPA filter to generate negative pressurization.

         iv. Consider using airlocks and a clean changing room.

         v.  Egress pathways should also be covered if a clean changing room is not used.

    (c) The work area should be unoccupied. 

    (d) Efforts should be made to reduce dust generation.  Dust suppression methods particularly during any cutting or resurfacing of materials are highly recommended.  Methods to consider include:  cleaning or gently misting surfaces with a dilute soap or detergent solution prior to removal; the use of High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) vacuum-shrouded tools; or using a vacuum equipped with a HEPA filter at the point of dust generation.  Work practices that create excessive dust should be avoided.

    (e) Moldy materials, that can be cleaned, should be cleaned using a soap or detergent solution.  Materials that cannot be cleaned should be removed from the building in sealed plastic bags.  The outside of the bags should be cleaned with a damp cloth and a soap or detergent solution or HEPA-vacuumed in the work area (or clean changing room) prior to their transport to unaffected areas of the building.  There are no special requirements for the disposal of moldy materials.

    (f) Before leaving isolated areas, workers should remove disposable clothing to prevent the tracking of mold-containing dusts outside of the work area.

    (g) The work area and egress pathways (and clean changing room if present) should be HEPA-vacuumed and cleaned with a damp cloth and/or mop with a soap or detergent solution and be visibly clean prior to the removal of isolation barriers.  Plastic sheeting should be discarded after use.

    (h) All areas should be left dry and visibly free from mold, dust, and debris.  Check that other quality assurance indicators (see Quality Insurance Indicators) have also been met.

 

Remediation of HVAC Systems
Mold growth in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can pose building-wide problems.  Obtaining professional help should always be considered in addressing even small amounts of mold growth or moisture problems within an HVAC system.  Recurring problems, regardless of size, may indicate a systemic problem and appropriate professional help should be sought.

Small Isolated Area of Mold Growth in the HVAC System (<10 square feet) –      e.g. box filter, small area on insulation

    (a) Remediation can be conducted by trained building maintenance staff that are familiar with the design and function of the impacted HVAC system.  Such persons should receive training on proper cleaning methods, personal protection, and potential health hazards. This training can be performed as part of a program to comply with the requirements of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200). 

    (b) Respiratory protection (e.g. N-95 disposable respirator), in accordance with the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134), is recommended.  Gloves and eye protection should be worn.

    (c) The HVAC system should be shut down prior to any remedial activities.

    (d) Efforts should be made to reduce dust generation.  Dust suppression methods particularly during any cutting or resurfacing of materials are highly recommended.  Methods to consider include:  cleaning or gently misting surfaces with a dilute soap or detergent solution prior to removal; the use of High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) vacuum-shrouded tools; or using a vacuum equipped with a HEPA filter at the point of dust generation.  Work practices that create excessive dust should be avoided.

    (e) The use of plastic sheeting to isolate other sections of the system should be considered.

    (f) Moldy materials that can be cleaned should be cleaned using a soap or detergent solution.  Growth-supporting materials that are moldy, such as the insulation of interior-lined ducts, flexible ducts, and filters, should be removed and sealed in plastic bags.  There are no special requirements for the disposal of moldy materials.

    (g) The work area and areas used for egress should be HEPA-vacuumed and cleaned with a damp cloth and/or mop and a soap or detergent solution.  Any plastic sheeting should be discarded after use.

    (h) All areas should be left dry and visibly free from mold, dust and debris.  Check that other quality assurance indicators (see Quality Insurance Indicators) have also been met.

Large Area of Mold Growth in the HVAC System (>10 square feet)
Properly trained and equipped mold remediation workers with specific training and experience in HVAC systems, should conduct the remediation.  The presence of a trained building or environmental health professional (see Environmental Assessment) with experience and specific knowledge of HVAC systems, to provide oversight during remediation can be helpful to ensure quality work and compliance with the work plan.  The following procedures are recommended:

    (a) Personnel trained in the handling of mold-damaged materials equipped with:

         i.    A minimum of half-face elastomeric respirators with P-100 filters used in accordance with the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134)

         ii.   Full body coveralls with head and foot coverings

         iii.  Gloves and eye protection

    (b) The HVAC system should be shut down prior to any remedial activities.

    (c) Containment of the affected area:

         i.    Isolation of work area from the other areas of the HVAC system using plastic sheeting sealed with duct tape

         ii.   The use of an exhaust fan equipped with a HEPA filter to generate negative pressurization should be considered

         iii.  Consider using airlocks and a clean changing room

         iv.  Egress pathways should also be covered if a clean changing room is not used

    (d) Efforts should be made to reduce dust generation.  Dust suppression methods particularly during any cutting or resurfacing of materials are highly recommended.  Methods to consider include:  cleaning or gently misting surfaces with a dilute soap or detergent solution prior to removal; the use of High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) vacuum-shrouded tools; or using a vacuum equipped with a HEPA filter at the point of dust generation.  Work practices that create excessive dust should be avoided.

    (e) Moldy materials that can be cleaned should be cleaned using a soap or detergent solution.  Growth-supporting materials that are moldy, such as the insulation of interior-lined ducts, flexible ducts, and filters, should be removed in sealed plastic bags.  The outside of the bags should be cleaned with a damp cloth and a soap or detergent solution or HEPA-vacuumed prior to their removal from the isolated work area.  There are no special requirements for the disposal of moldy materials.

    (f) Before leaving isolated areas, workers should remove disposable clothing to prevent the tracking of mold-containing dust outside of the work area.

    (g) The work area and egress pathways (and clean changing room if present) should be HEPA-vacuumed and cleaned with a damp cloth and/or mop and a soap or detergent solution prior to the removal of isolation barriers.  Plastic sheeting should be discarded after use.

    (h) All areas should be left dry and visibly free from mold, dust, and debris.  Check that other quality assurance indicators (seeQuality Insurance Indicators) have also been met.

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Communication with Building Occupants
Communication with occupants of affected spaces is important regardless of the size of the project but is especially important when mold growth requiring large-scale remediation is found. When large-scale remediation is performed, the building owner, management, and/or employer should notify occupants in the building. Notification should include a description of the remedial measures to be taken and a timetable for completion. Group meetings, held before and after remediation, with full disclosure of plans and results, can be an effective communication mechanism. Building occupants should be provided with a copy of all inspection reports upon request. For more detailed information on risk communication refer to the American Industrial Hygiene Association's publication, “Recognition, Evaluation, and Control of Indoor Mold.”26

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References

1. US Department of health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities, Atlanta, GA, 2003, www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/pdf/guidelines/Enviro_guide_03.pdf

2.  Health Canada, Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings: Health Effects and Investigation Methods, 2004

3.  Institute of Medicine. Damp indoor spaces and health.  Washington, DC:  National Academies Press, 2004.

4.  Mazur L, Kim J.  Spectrum of noninfectious health effects from molds.  Committee on Environmental Health, American Academy of Pediatrics.  Pediatrics, 2006; 118(6):  e1909-26.

5.  Seltzer JM, Fedoruk MJ.  Health effects of mold in children.  Pediatr Clin N Am, 2007; 54:  309-333.

6.  Storey E, Dangman KH, Schenck P, et al.  Guidance for clinicians on the recognition and management of health effects related to mold exposure and moisture indoors.  Farmington, CT: University of Connecticut Health Center, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Center for Indoor Environments and Health, 2004. http://oehc.uchc.edu/clinser/MOLD%20GUIDE.pdf

7. Kercsmar C, Dearborn D, et al.  Reduction in Asthma Morbidity in Children as a Result of Home Remediation Aimed at Moisture Sources.  Env Health Perspectives 2006: 114(8): 1574-1580.

8. Haas D, Habib J, et al.  Assessment of indoor air in Austrian apartments with and without visible mold growth.  Atmospheric Env 2007: 41: 5192-5201.

9. US Environmental Protection Agency.  Mold Remediation in Schools and Office Buildings.  Washington DC, 2001.  www.epa.gov/mold/table1.html

10. American Industrial Hygiene Association.  Assessment, Remediation, and Post-Remediation Verification of Mold in Buildings.  AIHA guideline #3.  Fairfax, VA.  2004. 

11. American Industrial Hygiene Association.  “Total Fungi and Other Assessment Methods,” Field Guide for the Determination of Biological Contaminants in Environmental Samples.  Hung L, Miller JD, Dillon HK, ed.  Fairfax, VA; AIHA 2005.

12. Morey P.  “Microbiological sampling strategies in indoor environments,” Sampling and analysis of indoor microorganisms.  Yang CS, ed.  Hoboken, NJ:  John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.

13. Park J, Schleiff P, et al.  Building-related respiratory symptoms can be predicted with semi-quantitative indices of exposure to dampness and mold.  Indoor Air 2004: 14: 425-433.

14. Meklin T, Reponen T, et al.  Comparison of mold concentrations quantified by MSQPRC in indoor and outdoor air sampled simultaneously.  Science of the Total Environment 2007: 382: 130-134.

15. Wieslander G, Norbäck D, Venge P.  Changes of symptoms, tear film stability and eosinophilic cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid after re-exposure to a damp office building with a history of flooding.  Indoor Air 2007: 17: 19-27.

16. Hicks J, Lu E, et al.  Fungal Types and Concentrations from Settled Dust in Normal Residences.  J Occ Env Hygiene 2005: 2: 481-492.

17. Hung L, Lindsey S, Kroehle K.  A Fungal Abatement Project in an Office Located in Arid Southwestern Region of the United States.  Proceedings: Indoor Air 2002: 733-738.

18. Burge H, Otten J.  “Fungi,” Bioaerosols Assessment and Control.  J Macher, ed.  Cincinnati, OH:  American Conference of Industrial Hygienists, 1999.

19. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc.  Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality – ASHRAE Standard (ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2007).  Atlanta, GA, 2007.

20. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc.  2007 ASHRAE Handbook – Heating Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Applications, Chapter 21, Inch-Pound Edition, Atlanta, GA, 2007

21. Cummings K, Sickle D, et al.  Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Mold Exposure Among Residents and Remediation Workers in Posthurricane New Orleans.  Arch Env Occ Health 2006: 61(3): 101-108.

22. Cummings K, Cox-Ganser J, et al.  Respirator Donning in Post-Hurricane New Orleans.  Emerging Infectious Disease 2007 13(5): 700-707.

23. National Clearinghouse for Worker Safety and Health Training. Guidelines for the protection and training of workers engaged in maintenance and remediation work associated with mold; May 20, 2005.   http://tools.niehs.nih.gov/wetp/index.cfm?id=327

24. Krause M, Geer W, et al.  Controlled Study of Mold Growth and Cleaning Procedure on Treated and Untreated Wet Gypsum Wallboard in an Indoor Environment.  J Occ Env Hyg 2006: 3: 435-441.

25. American Industrial Hygiene Association.  “Advanced Perspectives in Mold Assessment and Control: Approaches to Varying Occupancies/Building Types,” Recognition, Evaluation, and Control of Indoor Mold. Prezant B, Weekes D, Miller JD ed.  Fairfax, VA; AIHA 2008.

26. American Industrial Hygiene Association.  “Remediation: Scope, Roles, and Risk Communication,” Recognition, Evaluation, and Control of Indoor Mold. Prezant B, Weekes D, Miller JD ed.  Fairfax, VA; AIHA 2008.

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Appendix A

Health Effects

Several comprehensive reviews of the scientific literature on the health effects of mold in indoor spaces have been published in recent years.1-3 This appendix reflects these reviews but has also considered more recently published articles.

Potential for Exposure and Health Effects

Fungi are common in both indoor and outdoor environments and play a vital role in the earth’s ecology by decomposing organic matter such as dead trees and leaves.  As a result, all people have routine exposure to fungi, which may occur through inhalation, ingestion, and touching moldy surfaces.  The main route of exposure to mold for people living or working in moldy indoor environments is inhalation of airborne fungal spores, fragments, or metabolites.2 Ingestion and dermal exposures are less understood in these scenarios and can easily be minimized or prevented by workers through proper hygiene and work practices.  Therefore, the remaining discussion will focus on the adverse health effects of mold due to inhalational exposure.

Adverse health effects may include: allergic reactions; toxic effects and irritation; and infections.1-5 The mere presence of mold growth does not necessarily indicate that people present in the area will exhibit adverse health effects.  However, as the amount of mold-impacted materials increases, so do potential exposures.  Certain exposures may represent a significant risk such as occupational exposures to high concentrations of fungi and chronic (long-term) exposures, especially of individuals with underlying health conditions such as asthma, compromised immune systems, or allergies.  

Evidence linking mold exposures to severe human health effects is documented in reports of occupational disease, particularly in forestry and agricultural settings where inhalation exposures were typically high and/or chronic.2,6-11 The intensity of mold exposure and associated health effects experienced in undisturbed indoor environments is usually much less severe than that experienced by agricultural or forestry workers.2,7,12-14  With the possible exception of exposures from mold remediation work, such high-level exposures are not expected indoors.15-16  Although high-level exposures are unlikely to occur in undisturbed indoor settings, chronic exposures to lower levels may still raise health concerns.

Several factors influence the likelihood that individuals might experience health effects following exposure to mold in indoor environments.  These include: the nature of the fungal material (e.g., allergenic, toxic/irritant, or infectious); the degree of exposure (amount and duration); and the susceptibility of exposed people.  Susceptibility varies with genetic predisposition, age, state of health, concurrent exposures, and previous sensitization.  It is not possible to determine “safe” or “unsafe” levels of exposure for the general public because of variation of individual susceptibility, lack of standardized and validated environmental exposure sampling methods, and lack of reliable biological markers. 17

In addition to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to mold, in 2004, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) reported health risks associated with living in damp indoor environments.  The IOM reported evidence suggesting an association between damp indoor environments and the development of asthma.  Reported respiratory symptoms included, wheezing, coughing, and exacerbation of asthma.2  

Allergic and Hypersensitivity Effects

It is well established that fungi can cause allergic reactions in humans.  The most common symptoms associated with allergic reactions include runny nose, sneezing, post-nasal drip with sore throat, eye irritation, cough, wheeze, and other symptoms associated with the aggravation of asthma.2,13,18-23  Immunological responses to mold include allergic rhinitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and asthma exacerbations.  These conditions require prior exposure for sensitization.  These symptoms may persist for some time after removal from the source.

Allergic rhinitis is a group of symptoms that mostly affects the mucous membranes of nasal passages and may result from an allergic reaction to fungi.  Symptoms often associated with “hay fever” such as congestion, runny nose, and sneezing may occur.5,24

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a rare lung disease with delayed onset (3-8 hours) of fever, shortness of breath, cough, chest tightness, chills, and general malaise.  With continued exposure, HP can lead to permanent lung disease.  The occurrence of HP, even among those that are highly exposed to fungi, is rare.  HP has typically been associated with repeated heavy exposures in forestry and agricultural settings, which raises concerns for workers routinely performing mold remediation, but has also been reported in indoor settings with lower level chronic exposures.3,11,18,25-27   

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) are examples of rarely occurring allergic reactions to non-invasive fungal growth in the respiratory system.  Most symptoms are non-specific resembling asthma or chronic sinusitis.  In addition, ABPA and AFS usually occur in those with underlying medical problems.  In the case of ABPA, this includes cystic fibrosis, asthma, and other predisposing medical conditions.28,29 

Recent studies, which have suggested an association between the presence of indoor mold and the development of asthma or allergies, are limited and difficult to interpret.  Stark et al. found higher concentrations of dust-borne mold in infants’ homes were associated with development of allergic rhinitis, which is a known risk factor for childhood asthma.24 However, other studies have shown higher concentrations of dust-borne fungi and other microorganisms in infants’ homes were associated with a decreased risk for asthma and wheezing.30,31 Jaakkola et al. reported an association between a moldy odor in the home and development of asthma, but no association with visible mold or water damage was found.  Although the sample size for this subset was small, it suggests that active mold growth might be a stronger risk factor for certain health effects than presence of nonviable or inactive mold alone.32 This also is supported by recent studies that have shown allergen production is significantly increased during active growth.33,34

Though available, allergy testing for molds is limited, subject to high rates of error, and can be difficult to interpret.  Preparations for skin testing or the specific antigen in blood tests may be different from the mold to which an individual is sensitive.  A positive test indicates an allergic response but does not definitively link a specific mold exposure to an individual’s current health condition.5

Irritant and Toxic Effects

Irritant Effects

Indoor growth of mold can lead to the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), also referred to as microbial VOCs (MVOCs), and the presence of fungal glucans.13,35-38  Glucans are components of many fungal cell walls.  Some studies have reported an association with the inhalation of glucans and airway irritation and inflammation, but results have been mixed and may not be applicable to expected indoor concentrations.  Observed effects may also be the result of exposure to or contact with other fungal components, metabolites, or synergistic effects with other microbial agents.17,36,39 Resolution of irritant symptoms upon removal from the source can help distinguish irritant effects from allergic symptoms.5

MVOCs are responsible for the musty odor often associated with mold growth, which may be noticeable at very low concentrations.  Many of the MVOCs are common to other sources in the home.40 The very low levels usually found indoors have not been shown to cause health effects.35,37 

Toxic Effects

Some symptoms and maladies have been attributed to the toxic effects of fungi in indoor environments.  Certain fungi can produce toxins (mycotoxins) at varying levels that are dependent on many complex environmental and biological factors.41 The reported symptoms from exposure to mycotoxins indoors include headaches, irritation, and nausea/loss of appetite, but are often non-specific (e.g. fatigue, inability to concentrate/remember), and may be caused by other environmental and non-environmental agents.2,42-46  Although health effects from exposures to mycotoxins have been associated with certain occupational exposures or ingestion of mold-contaminated food, scientific support for the reported effects in indoor environments has not been established.  This may be due to the lower levels of exposure and different routes of exposure.2,5,13,21,27,46-49 

Stachybotrys is colloquially referred to as “black mold” or “toxic mold.”  It has been suggested that toxins produced by this mold are associated with specific health effects.  Acute Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemorrhage (AIPH) in infants has been described in several reports suggesting a relationship with Stachybotrys.  AIPH is an uncommon condition that results in bleeding in the lungs.  The IOM reviewed the existing studies and concluded that there was insufficient evidence to determine if mold exposure was associated with AIPH.2,3  The evidence is also insufficient for an association between inhalation of Stachybotrys toxins indoors and neurological damage.2,26,49  Although severe health effects from the inhalation exposures to Stachybotrys toxins indoors is plausible, it is not well-supported, and the issue remains controversial.2,3,5,27,49,50

Organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) describes the abrupt onset of fever, flu-like symptoms, and respiratory symptoms in the hours following a single, heavy exposure to dust-containing fungi and other microorganisms.  Unlike HP, ODTS does not require repeated exposures to bioaerosols and can occur after the first exposure.  ODTS has been documented in farm workers handling contaminated material, but may also affect workers performing remediation of building materials with widespread mold growth.2,11,27  ODTS is a self-limited illness, which usually improves within 24 hours after the discontinuation of exposure.  It may be underreported among workers exposed to fungi, but would not be expected in occupants of buildings with mold growth.11,27

Infectious Disease

Only a small number of fungi have been associated with infectious disease.  Few of these fungi are typically found in the indoor environment.51,52  Several species of Aspergillus are known to cause aspergillosis, most commonly A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and rarely, other species.  Aspergillosis is a disease that generally affects severely immunosuppressed persons.  Exposure to these molds, even in high concentrations, is unlikely to cause infection in healthy individuals.21,53 Heavy exposure to fungi associated with bird and bat droppings (e.g. Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans) can lead to health effects, usually transient flu-like illnesses, in healthy individuals.  More severe health effects are primarily encountered in immunocompromised persons.18,54 

Appendix A References

1.  Health Canada, Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings: Health Effects and Investigation Methods, 2004

2.  Institute of Medicine. Damp indoor spaces and health.  Washington, DC:  National Academies Press, 2004.

3.  Mazur L, Kim J.  Spectrum of noninfectious health effects from molds.  Committee on Environmental Health, American Academy of Pediatrics.  Pediatrics, 2006; 118(6):  e1909-26.

4.  Seltzer JM, Fedoruk MJ.  Health effects of mold in children.  Pediatr Clin N Am, 2007; 54:  309-333.

5.  Storey E, Dangman KH, Schenck P, et al.  Guidance for clinicians on the recognition and management of health effects related to mold exposure and moisture indoors.  Farmington, CT: University of Connecticut Health Center, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Center for Indoor Environments and Health, 2004. http://oehc.uchc.edu/clinser/MOLD%20GUIDE.pdf

6. do Pico G, Hazardous Exposure and Lung Disease Among Farm Workers.  Clinics in Chest Medicine 1992; 13(2): 311-28.

7.  Cookingham C, Solomon W.  “Bioaerosol-Induced Hypersensitivity Diseases,” Bioaerosols.  H Burge, ed.  Boca Raton, FL:  CRC Press, 1995.

8. Lee S, Adhikari A, Grinshpun S, et al.  Personal Exposure to Airborne Dust and Microorganisms in Agricultural Environments.  Journal Of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 2006; 3: 118-130.

9. Moore J, Convery R, Millar BC.  Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Associated with Mushroom Worker’s Lung: An Update on the Clinical Significance of the Importation of Exotic Mushroom Varieties.  Int. Arch Allergy and Immunology, 2005; 136: 98-102.

10. Rose C. “Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis,” Preventing Occupational Disease and Injury.  Levy B., et al. ed.  American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 2005

11. Seifert SA, Von Essen S, Jacobitz K, et al.  Organic dust toxic syndrome: a review.  J Toxicol Clin Toxicol, 2003; 41(2):  185-193.

12. Weltermann BM, Hodgson M, Storey E, et al.  Hypersensitivity pneumonitis:  a sentinel event investigation in a wet building.  Am J Ind Med, 1998; 34(5):  499-505.

13. Bush RK, Portnoy JM, Saxon A, et al.  The medical effects of mold exposure.  J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2006; 117(2):  326-333.

14. Hodgson MJ, Morey PR, Attfield M, et al.  Pulmonary disease associated with cafeteria flooding.  Arch Environ Health, 1985; 40(2):  96-101.

15.  Rautiala S, Reponen T, Nevalainen A, et al.  Control of exposure to airborne viable microorganisms during remediation of moldy buildings; report of three case studies.  Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 1998; 59(7):  455-60.

16. Morey P, Hunt S.  Mold contamination in an earthquake damaged building, in Proceedings of Healthy Buildings, 1995; 95:1377-80 in Guidelines for the protection and training of workers engaged in maintenance and remediation work associated with mold, May 20, 2005:  National Clearinghouse for Worker Safety and Health Training.

17. Douwes J, Thorne P, Pearce N, Heederik D.   Review – Bioaerosol Health Effects and Exposure Assessment: Progress and Prospects.  Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2003; 47(3): 187-200.

18. Burge H, Otten J.  “Fungi,” Bioaerosols Assessment and Control.  J Macher, ed.  Cincinnati, OH:  American Conference of Industrial Hygienists, 1999.

19. Committee on Environmental Health, American Academy of Pediatrics.  Spectrum of noninfectious health effects from molds.  Pediatrics, 2006;118(6):  2582-6. 

20. Dales RE, Zwanenburg H, Burnett R, et al.  Respiratory health effects of home dampness and molds among Canadian children.  Am J Epidemiol, 1991; 134(2):  196-203.

21. Levetin E.  “Fungi,” Bioaerosols.  H Burge, ed.  Boca Raton, FL:  CRC Press, 1995.

22. Bush RK, Portnoy JM.  The role and abatement of fungal allergens in allergic diseases.  J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 107(3 Suppl): S430-40.

23. Villette M, Cornier Y, et al.  Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Hardwood Processing Plant Related to Heavy Mold Exposure.  Journal Of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 2006; 3: 301-307.

24. Stark P, Celedón J, et al.  Fungal levels in the Home and Allergic Rhinitis by 5 Years of Age. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005; 113 (10): 1405-1409.

25. Cox-Ganser J, White S, et al.  Respiratory Morbidity in Office Workers in a Water-Damaged Building.  Environmental Health Perspectives 2005; 113(4): 485-490.

26. Jarvis J, Morey P.  Allergic Respiratory Disease and Fungal Remediation in a Building in a Subtropical Climate.  Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 2001; 16(3): 380-388.

27. Kuhn D, Ghannoum M.  Indoor Mold, Toxigenic Fungi, and Stachybotrys chartarum: Infectious Disease Perspective.  Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2003; 16(1): 144-172.

28. Ritz N, Ammann R, et al.  Risk factors for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus in patients with cystic fibrosis.  European Journal of Pediatrics 2005; 164(9): 577-582.

29. Simon-Nobbe B, Denk U, et al.  The Spectrum of Fungal Allergy.  Int. Ach Allergy Immunol 2008; 145:58-68.

30. Iossifova Y, Reponen T, et al.  House dust (1-3)-ß-D-glucan and wheezing in infants.  Allergy 2007: 62:504-513.

31. Douwes J, van Strien R, et al. Does early indoor microbial exposure reduce the risk of asthma?  The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study.  J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 117(5): 1067-1073.

32. Jaakkola J, Hwang B, Jaakkola N.  Home Dampness and Molds, Parental Atopy, and Asthma in Childhood: A Six-Year Population-Based Cohort Study.  Environmental Health Perspectives 2005; 113(3): 357-361.

33. Mitakakis T, Barnes C, et al.  Spore germination increases allergen release from Alternaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001 107(2): 388-390.

34. Green B, Mitakakis T, Tovey E.  Allergen detection from 11 fungal species before and after germination.  J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 111(2): 285-289.

35. Schleibinger H, Laußmann D.  Emission patterns and emission rates of MVOC and the possibility for predicting hidden mold damage?  Indoor Air 2005; 15(suppl 9): 98-104.

36. Rylander R, Lin R.  (1-3)-ß-D-glucan – relationship to indoor air-related symptoms, allergy and asthma.  Toxicology 2000; 152: 47-52.

37. Horner W, Miller JD.  Microbial volatile organic compounds with emphasis on those arising from filamentous fungal contaminants of buildings.  ASHRAE Transactions: Research 4621 (RP-1072) 2003.

38. American Industrial Hygiene Association.  “Total Fungi and Other Assessment Methods,” Field Guide for the Determination of Biological Contaminants in Environmental Samples.  Hung L, Miller JD, Dillon HK, ed.  Fairfax, VA; AIHA 2005.

39. Douwes J.  (1-3)-ß-D-glucans and respiratory health: a review of the scientific evidence.  Indoor Air 2005: 15: 160-169.

40. Wessen B., Strom G., et al.  “Analysis of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds,”  Microorganisms in Home and Indoor Work Environments.  Flannigan B., Samson R., Miller J., ed.    New York NY: Taylor and Francis, 2001.

41. Bennett J, Klich M.  Mycotoxins.  Clin Microbiol Rev; 2003; 16(3):  497-516.

42. Hodgson MJ, Morey P, Leung WY, et al.  Building-associated pulmonary disease from exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolorJ Occup Environ Med, 1998; 40(3):  241-249.

43. Croft WA, Jarvis BB, Yatawara CS.  Airborne Outbreak of Trichothecene Toxicosis.  Atmospheric  Environment, 1986; 20(3):  549-552.

44. DeKoster J, Thorne P.  Bioaerosol concentrations in noncompliant, complaint, and intervention homes in the Midwest.  Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 1995; 56(6):  573-580.

45. Johanning E, Biagini R, Hull D, et al.  Health and immunological study following exposure to toxigenic fungi (Stachybotrys chartarum) in a water-damaged office environment.  Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 1996; 68:  207-218.

46. Kelman BJ, Robbins CA, Swenson LJ, et al.  Risk from inhaled mycotoxins in indoor office and residential environments.  Int J Toxicol, 2004; 23(1):  3-10.

47. Fischer G, Wolfgang D.  Relevance of airborne fungi and their secondary metabolites for environmental, occupational and indoor hygiene.  Arch Microbiology 2003; 179: 75-82

48. Fung F, Hughson W.  Health Effects of Indoor Fungal Bioaerosol Exposure.  Applied Occ and Env Hygiene 2003; 18: 535-544.

49. Miller J D, Rand T, Jarvis B.  Stachybotrys chartarum: cause of human disease or media darling?  Medical Mycology 2003; 41: 271-291.

50. Etzel R.  Mycotoxins.  JAMA 2002; 287(4):  425-27.

51. Horner W, Worthan P, Morey P.  Air- and dust-borne mycoflora in houses free of water damage and fungal growth.  Appl Environ Microbiol 2004; 70(11):  6394-6400.

52. MacIntosh D, Brightman H, et al.  Airborne Fungal Spores in a Cross-Sectional Study of Office Buildings.  J Occ Env Hyg 2006; 3: 379-389.

53. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, US Department of Health and Human Services.  Aspergillosis.  http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/aspergillosis_t.htm, 6 October 2005.

54. Lenhart S, Schafer M, et al.  Histoplasmosis – Protecting Workers at Risk. Occupational Respiratory Diseases.  Cincinnati, OH:  US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004.

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Preventing and Cleaning Mold Growth Fact Sheet for Building Owners and Managers
Mold (mildew) is a fungus that can grow inside building on wet or damp surfaces. Mold can cause allergic reactions, trigger asthma attacks, or cause other health problems in some people.

Mold needs water or moisture to grow. Stop indoor mold growth by fixing leaks, drying damp or wet areas and controlling humidity. Before a clean-up, refer to the complete “Mold Guidelines” at nyc.gov/health.

PREVENT MOLD GROWTH

Fix Water Problems Immediately

• Correct water leaks immediately

• Dry any water-damaged items immediately

Control Moisture Sources

•  In bathrooms without windows, check that bathroom fans or exhaust vents are working.

•  In bathrooms with windows, check that the window can be opened.

• Use a dehumidifier to keep humidity levels low in basements

Check the Size of the ARea With Mold Growth And Water Damage

• Look for hidden mold and water damage

• If the amount of mold observed covers a large area (more than 100 square feet), is in the HVAC system, or is difficult to get to, you may need professional help.

• If there is less than 100 square feet of mold growth, trained building staff should be able to do the cleanup job.

Follow the Proper Steps To Clean Mold Growth

• Tell people living or working in the building about the plan to clean the mold growth.

• Tenants and others should leave the work area before cleaning begins.

• Cover or remove difficult-to-clean surfaces or items (e.g. carpeting, electronics) from the work area before cleaning begins.

• Use safety goggles, gloves, and a disposable respirator when removing mold growth.

• Clean mold growth with soap or a detergent, and water.

• Remove and throw away porous materials (e.g. ceiling tiles, insulation) with mold growth on them.

• Dispose of any plastic sheeting, moldy materials, and used sponges or rags in sealed heavy-duty plastic bags.

• Always fix water problems immediately. If the mold returns quickly or spreads, you may have an ongoing water problem.

strong>If more than 10 square feet of mold growth is present also:

•  Cover the floor in the work area with plastic sheeting./li>

•  Cover entry and exit pathways with plastic sheeting./li>

•  Seal any ventilation ducts with plastic sheeting./li>

•  Mop and/or HEPA-vacuum the work area and pathways./li>

CLEAN MOLD GROWTH WITH PROPER SUPPLIES

•  Soap or detergent

•  Disposable rags/sponges and scrub brush

• Buckets

• Heavy-duty plastic garbage bags

• Protective gear (goggles, rubber gloves, N95 respirator)



    For More Information
    Visit our web site at nyc.gov/health for complete recommendations on mold removal or call
    the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.  In NYC, call 311.

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