Translate This Page Print This Page Email a Friend Newsletter Sign-Up
Text Size : Sm Med Lg



Aerosolized Anthrax

Aerosolized AnthraxAnthrax is an infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic livestock (such as cattle, sheep and goats) but infections can occur in humans as well. Anthrax can be intentionally aerosolized causing inhalational anthrax that occurs when anthrax spores are inhaled into a person’s lungs. From the lungs, anthrax can spread into the lymph glands in the chest and from there into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, anthrax can spread to all parts of the body. Inhalation anthrax is difficult to treat. Antibiotics should be started soon after symptoms begin.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Aerosolized Burkholderia

Aerosolized BurkholderiaMelioidosis and Glanders are infectious diseases caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei or Pseudomonas pseudomallei. These harmful bacteria are found in unsanitary water or moist soil. They are transmitted to animals and humans by ingestion or inhalation.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Anthrax Food Contamination

Anthrax Food ContaminationAnthrax is an infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic livestock (such as cattle, sheep and goats), but infections can occur in humans as well. Intentional contamination of food with anthrax spores could cause gastrointestinal anthrax after a person eats uncooked or undercooked food that is contaminated with anthrax spores or bacteria. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes severe inflammation of the intestinal tract and is usually fatal.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Botulism

BotulismBotulism is a serious illness caused by an extremely powerful poison called botulinum toxin that paralyzes the muscles. The toxin is produced by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Botulism develops if a person ingests the toxin or if the bacteria grow and release a toxin in a wound or in the intestines.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Plague

PlaguePlague is a potentially severe disease caused by a bacterium, Yersinia pestis. It caused the “Black Death” in Europe during the Middle Ages, when approximately one-third of the European population died. Rats on ships brought plague from China to San Francisco in 1900. Today, it continues to cause disease in wild rodents (for example, ground squirrels and prairie dogs) and in cats and dogs in the southwestern United States, California and southern Oregon. Plague also exists in eastern and southern Africa, Southeast Asia, China, Russia and parts of South America.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Rift Valley Fever

Rift Valley FeverRift Valley fever is a viral disease that usually causes illness in cattle, sheep and goats and other animals. It has been found primarily in eastern and sub-Saharan Africa. In the past decade, it also has caused outbreaks on the Arabian Peninsula. Animals are infected by bites from infected mosquitoes that multiply during conditions such as local flooding or sustained pooling of water. Animal infections can lead to abortion or death. Human infections also occur, following contact with blood, other body fluids or tissues of infected animals or, to a lesser extent, from mosquito bites.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Smallpox

SmallpoxSmallpox is a virus that used to cause one of the most feared illnesses in history. A global World Health Organization vaccination program from the mid-1960s to 1980 successfully eradicated smallpox. The last naturally occurring case of the disease appeared in 1977 in Somalia. Smallpox virus is maintained in high-security government laboratories in the United States and Russia. Though less contagious than influenza and chickenpox, single cases introduced into a population could result in large epidemics. Since most persons living today do not have any immunity to the virus, any re-introduction of smallpox could result in a global pandemic.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Tularemia

TularemiaTularemia is a disease caused by a bacterium, Francisella tularensis, which infects both animals and people. Although infection occurs among many wild and domestic animals, rabbits are most often involved in disease outbreaks. Tularemia is relatively rare in New York City.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Viral Hemorrhagic Fever

Viral Hemorrhagic FeverViral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) refers to a group of illnesses caused by several families of viruses. In general, the term describes a severe condition in which multiple organ systems in the body are affected. Typically, the vascular (blood vessel) system is damaged, and the body loses its ability to control bleeding. Some types of hemorrhagic fever viruses cause relatively mild illnesses; others cause severe, life-threatening disease.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS